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Xi Jinping's Three APEC Speeches & Leaders' Declaration
For a lesson in how to apply Soft Power, one must read Xi Jinping’s speeches, not just at the just concluded APEC Summit in San Francisco but the entire corpus. First is his speech at the Welcome Dinner by Friendly Organizations in the United States, which was entitled, “Galvanizing Our Peoples into a Strong Force For the Cause of China-U.S. Friendship.”
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It gives me great pleasure to meet with you, friends from across the American society, in San Francisco to renew our friendship and strengthen our bond. My first visit to the United States in 1985 started from San Francisco, which formed my first impression of this country. Today I still keep a photo of me in front of the Golden Gate Bridge.
Before going further, I wish to express my sincere thanks to the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, the U.S.-China Business Council, the Asia Society, the Council on Foreign Relations, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and other friendly organizations for hosting this event. I also want to express my warm greetings to all American friends who have long committed to growing China-U.S. relations and my best wishes to the friendly American people.
San Francisco has borne witness to exchanges between the Chinese and American peoples for over a century. A hundred and fifty-eight years ago, a large number of Chinese workers came all the way to the United States to build the first transcontinental railroad, and established in San Francisco the oldest Chinatown in the Western Hemisphere. From here, China and the United States have made many achievements--USD 760 billion of annual bilateral trade and over USD 260 billion of two-way investment, 284 pairs of sister provinces/states and sister cities, and over 300 scheduled flights every week and over five million travels every year at peak time. These extraordinary accomplishments were made jointly by our peoples accounting for nearly one quarter of the global population.
San Francisco has also borne witness to the efforts by China and the United States in building a better world. Seventy-eight years ago, after jointly defeating fascism and militarism, our two countries initiated together with others the San Francisco Conference, which helped found the United Nations, and China was the first country to sign the U.N. Charter. Starting from San Francisco, the postwar international order was established. Over 100 countries have gained independence one after another. Several billion people have eventually shaken off poverty. The forces for world peace, development and progress have grown stronger. This has been the main fruit jointly achieved by people of all countries and the international community.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The foundation of China-U.S. relations was laid by our peoples. During World War II, our two countries fought side by side for peace and justice. Headed by General Claire Lee Chennault, a group of American volunteers, known as the Flying Tigers, went to the battlefield in China. They not only engaged in direct combats fighting Japanese aggressors, but also created "The Hump" airlift to transport much-needed supplies to China. More than 1,000 Chinese and American airmen lost their lives on this air route. After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the United States sent 16 B-25 bombers on an air raid to Japan in 1942. Running low on fuel after completing their mission, Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle and his fellow pilots parachuted in China. They were rescued by Chinese troops and local civilians. But some 250,000 civilian Chinese were killed by Japanese aggressors in retaliation.
The Chinese people never forget the Flying Tigers. We built a Flying Tigers museum in Chongqing, and invited over 1,000 Flying Tigers veterans and their families to visit China. I have kept in touch with some of them through letters. Most recently, 103-year-old Harry Moyer and 98-year-old Mel McMullen, both Flying Tigers veterans, went back to China. They visited the Great Wall, and were warmly received by the Chinese people.
The American people, on their part, always remember the Chinese who risked their lives to save American pilots. Offspring of those American pilots often visit the Doolittle Raid Memorial Hall in Quzhou of Zhejiang Province to pay tribute to the Chinese people for their heroic and valorous efforts. These stories fill me with firm confidence that the friendship between our two peoples, which has stood the test of blood and fire, will be passed on from generation to generation.
The door of China-U.S. relations was opened by our peoples. For 22 years, there were estrangement and antagonism between our two countries. But the trend of the times brought us together, converging interests enabled us to rise above differences, and the people's longing broke the ice between the two countries. In 1971, the U.S. table tennis team visited Beijing--a small ball moved the globe. Not long after that, Mr. Mike Mansfield led the first U.S. Congressional delegation to China. This was followed by the first governors' delegation including Iowa Governor Robert Ray and then many business delegations, forming waves of friendly exchanges.
This year, after the world emerged from the COVID-19 pandemic, I have respectively met in Beijing with Dr. Henry Kissinger, Mr. Bill Gates, Senator Chuck Schumer and his Senate colleagues, and Governor Gavin Newsom. I told them that the hope of the China-U.S. relationship lies in the people, its foundation is in our societies, its future depends on the youth, and its vitality comes from exchanges at subnational levels. I welcome more U.S. governors, Congressional members, and people from all walks of life to visit China.
The stories of China-U.S. relations are written by our peoples. During my first visit to the United States, I stayed at the Dvorchaks in Iowa. I still remember their address--2911 Bonnie Drive. That was my first face-to-face contact with the Americans. The days I spent with them are unforgettable. For me, they represent America. I have found that although our two countries are different in history, culture and social system and have embarked on different development paths, our two peoples are both kind, friendly, hardworking and down-to-earth. We both love our countries, our families and our lives, and we both are friendly toward each other and are interested in each other. It is the convergence of many streams of goodwill and friendship that has created a strong current surging across the vast Pacific Ocean; it is the reaching out to each other by our peoples that has time and again brought China-U.S. relations from a low ebb back onto the right track. I am convinced that once opened, the door of China-U.S. relations cannot be shut again. Once started, the cause of China-U.S. friendship cannot be derailed halfway. The tree of our peoples' friendship has grown tall and strong; and it can surely withstand the assault of any wind or storm.
The future of China-U.S. relations will be created by our peoples. The more difficulties there are, the greater the need for us to forge a closer bond between our peoples and to open our hearts to each other, and more people need to speak up for the relationship. We should build more bridges and pave more roads for people-to-people interactions. We must not erect barriers or create a chilling effect.
Today, President Biden and I reached important consensus. Our two countries will roll out more measures to facilitate travels and promote people-to-people exchanges, including increasing direct passenger flights, holding a high-level dialogue on tourism, and streamlining visa application procedures. We hope that our two peoples will make more visits, contacts and exchanges and write new stories of friendship in the new era. I also hope that California and San Francisco will continue to take the lead on the journey of growing China-U.S. friendship!
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We are in an era of challenges and changes. It is also an era of hope. The world needs China and the United States to work together for a better future. We, the largest developing country and the largest developed country, must handle our relations well. In a world of changes and chaos, it is ever more important for us to have the mind, assume the vision, shoulder the responsibility, and play the role that come along with our status as major countries.
I have always had one question on my mind: How to steer the giant ship of China-U.S. relations clear of hidden rocks and shoals, navigate it through storms and waves without getting disoriented, losing speed or even having a collision?
In this respect, the number one question for us is: are we adversaries, or partners? This is the fundamental and overarching issue. The logic is quite simple. If one sees the other side as a primary competitor, the most consequential geopolitical challenge and a pacing threat, it will only lead to misinformed policy making, misguided actions, and unwanted results. China is ready to be a partner and friend of the United States. The fundamental principles that we follow in handling China-U.S. relations are mutual respect, peaceful coexistence and win-win cooperation.
Just as mutual respect is a basic code of behavior for individuals, it is fundamental for China-U.S. relations. The United States is unique in its history, culture and geographical position, which have shaped its distinct development path and social system. We fully respect all this. The path of socialism with Chinese characteristics has been found under the guidance of the theory of scientific socialism, and is rooted in the tradition of the Chinese civilization with an uninterrupted history of more than 5,000 years. We are proud of our choice, just as you are proud of yours. Our paths are different, but both are the choice by our peoples, and both lead to the realization of the common values of humanity. They should be both respected.
Peaceful coexistence is a basic norm for international relations, and is even more of a baseline that China and the United States should hold on to as two major countries. It is wrong to view China, which is committed to peaceful development, as a threat and thus play a zero-sum game against it. China never bets against the United States, and never interferes in its internal affairs. China has no intention to challenge the United States or to unseat it. Instead, we will be glad to see a confident, open, ever-growing and prosperous United States. Likewise, the United States should not bet against China, or interfere in China's internal affairs. It should instead welcome a peaceful, stable and prosperous China.
Win-win cooperation is the trend of the times, and it is also an inherent property of China-U.S. relations. China is pursuing high-quality development, and the United States is revitalizing its economy. There is plenty of room for our cooperation, and we are fully able to help each other succeed and achieve win-win outcomes.
The Belt and Road Initiative as well as the Global Development Initiative (GDI), the Global Security Initiative (GSI) and the Global Civilization Initiative (GCI) proposed by China are open to all countries at all times including the United States. China is also ready to participate in U.S.-proposed multilateral cooperation initiatives. This morning, President Biden and I agreed to promote dialogue and cooperation, in the spirit of mutual respect, in areas including diplomacy, economy and trade, people-to-people exchange, education, science and technology, agriculture, military, law enforcement, and artificial intelligence. We agreed to make the cooperation list longer and the pie of cooperation bigger. I would like to let you know that China sympathizes deeply with the American people, especially the young, for the sufferings that Fentanyl has inflicted upon them. President Biden and I have agreed to set up a working group on counternarcotics to further our cooperation and help the United States tackle drug abuse. I also wish to announce here that to increase exchanges between our peoples, especially between the youth, China is ready to invite 50,000 young Americans to China on exchange and study programs in the next five years.
Recently, the three pandas at Smithsonian's National Zoo in Washington D.C. have returned to China. I was told that many American people, especially children, were really reluctant to say goodbye to the pandas, and went to the zoo to see them off. I also learned that the San Diego Zoo and the Californians very much look forward to welcoming pandas back. Pandas have long been envoys of friendship between the Chinese and American peoples. We are ready to continue our cooperation with the United States on panda conservation, and do our best to meet the wishes of the Californians so as to deepen the friendly ties between our two peoples.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
China is the largest developing country in the world. The Chinese people long for better jobs, better lives, and better education for their children. It is what the 1.4 billion Chinese hold dear to their hearts. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is committed to working for the people, and our people's expectation for a better life is our goal. This means we must work hard to secure their support. Thanks to a century of exploration and struggle, we have found the development path that suits us. We are now advancing the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation on all fronts by pursuing Chinese modernization.
We are committed to striving in unity to achieve modernization for all Chinese. A large population is a fundamental aspect of China's reality. Our achievements, however great, would be very small when divided by 1.4 billion. But a problem, however small, would be huge when multiplied by 1.4 billion. This is a unique challenge for a country of our size. In the meantime, big also means strength. The leadership of the CPC, the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the endorsement and support of the people are our greatest strengths. China is both a super-large economy and a super-large market. Not long ago the sixth China International Import Expo was held, attracting over 3,400 business exhibitors from 128 countries including the United States. The exhibition area of American companies has been the largest for six consecutive years at the Expo. Modernization for 1.4 billion Chinese is a huge opportunity that China provides to the world.
We are committed to prosperity for all to deliver a better life for each and every Chinese. To eliminate poverty is the millennia-old dream of the Chinese nation, and prosperity for all is the longing of all Chinese. Before I turned 16, I was in a village in northern Shaanxi Province, where I lived and farmed with villagers, and I knew about their worries and needs. Now half a century on, I always feel confident and strong when staying with the people. Serving the people selflessly and living up to their expectations is my lifelong commitment. When I became General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President of the People's Republic of China, 100 million people were still living below the poverty line set by the United Nations. Thanks to eight years of tenacious efforts, we lifted them all out of poverty. We realized the poverty reduction goal of the U.N. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule. In the process, over 1,800 CPC members lost their lives in the line of duty.
Our goal is not to have just a few wealthy people, but to realize common prosperity for all. Employment, education, medical services, child care, elderly care, housing, the environment and the like are real issues important to people's daily life and close to their heart. They are being steadily integrated into our top-level plans for national development, thus ever increasing the sense of fulfillment, happiness and security of our people. We will continue to promote high-quality development and deliver the benefits of modernization to all. This is the CPC's founding mission and the pledge we have made to the people. It will surely be realized with the support of the people.
We are committed to well-rounded development to achieve both material and cultural-ethical advancement for the people. Our forefathers observed that "When people are well-fed and well-clad, they will have a keen sense of honor and shame." Material shortage is not socialism, nor is cultural-ethical impoverishment. Chinese modernization is people-centered. An important goal of Chinese modernization is to continue increasing the country's economic strength and improving the people's living standards, and at the same time, enriching the people's cultural lives, enhancing civility throughout society and promoting well-rounded development of the person. The purpose of the Global Civilization Initiative I proposed is to urge the international community to address the imbalance between material and cultural advancement and jointly promote continued progress of human civilization.
We are committed to sustainable development to achieve harmony between man and nature. The belief that humans are an integral part of nature and need to follow nature's course is a distinctive feature of traditional Chinese culture. We live in the same global village, and we possibly won't find another inhabitable planet in our lifetime. As an English saying goes, "We do not inherit the Earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children." When I was Governor of Fujian Province in 2002, I called for turning Fujian into the first ecological province in China. Later when I worked in Zhejiang Province in 2005, I said that clear waters and green mountains are just as valuable as gold and silver. Today, this view has become a consensus of all the Chinese people. China now has close to half of the world's installed photovoltaic capacity. Over half of the world's new energy vehicles run on roads in China, and China contributes one-fourth of increased area of afforestation in the world. We will strive to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. We have made the pledge, and we will honor it.
We are committed to peaceful development to build a community with a shared future for mankind. Peace, amity and harmony are values embedded in Chinese civilization. Aggression and expansion are not in our genes. The Chinese people have bitter and deep memories of the turmoils and sufferings inflicted upon them in modern times. I often say that what the Chinese people oppose is war, what they want is stability, and what they hope for is enduring world peace. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation cannot be achieved without a peaceful and stable international environment. In pursuing modernization, we will never revert to the beaten path of war, colonization, plundering or coercion.
Throughout the 70 years and more since the founding of the People's Republic, China has not provoked a conflict or war, or occupied a single inch of foreign land. China is the only major country that has written peaceful development into the Constitution of the country and the Constitution of the governing party, thus making peaceful development a commitment of the nation. It benefits from and safeguards the current international order. We remain firm in safeguarding the international system with the U.N. at its core, the international order underpinned by international law, and the basic norms governing international relations based on the purposes and principles of the U.N. Charter. Whatever stage of development it may reach, China will never pursue hegemony or expansion, and will never impose its will on others. China does not seek spheres of influence, and will not fight a cold war or a hot war with anyone. China will remain committed to dialogue and oppose confrontation, and build partnerships instead of alliances. It will continue to pursue a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up. The modernization we are pursuing is not for China alone. We are ready to work with all countries to advance global modernization featuring peaceful development, mutually beneficial cooperation and common prosperity, and to build a community with a shared future for mankind.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The passage of time is like a surging river--much is washed away, but the most valuable stays. No matter how the global landscape evolves, the historical trend of peaceful coexistence between China and the United States will not change. The ultimate wish of our two peoples for exchanges and cooperation will not change. The expectations of the whole world for a steadily growing China-U.S. relationship will not change. For any great cause to succeed, it must take root in the people, gain strength from the people, and be accomplished by the people. Growing China-U.S. friendship is such a great cause. Let us galvanize the Chinese and American peoples into a strong force to renew China-U.S. friendship, advance China-U.S. relations, and make even greater contributions to world peace and development!
The technique is called talking past the government directly to the people to exert pressure in your favor. I thought it very well done. Next up is Xi's written speech at Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation CEO Summit, “Meeting Challenges with Unity of Purpose To Write a New Chapter for Asia-Pacific Cooperation”:
Representatives of the Business Community,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It gives me great pleasure to be invited to address the APEC CEO Summit. I visited San Francisco many years ago, and I was deeply impressed by the openness, inclusiveness and creativity which this beautiful city is famous for.
Three decades ago, where humanity should be headed in the post-Cold War era was the question of the world, of history and of the times in front of Asia-Pacific leaders. In response, they followed the trend toward peace and development, and convened the inaugural APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting. They agreed unanimously to rise above the outdated mentality of bloc confrontation and zero-sum game, deepen economic cooperation and integration in the region, and build a dynamic, harmonious and prosperous Asia-Pacific community. This major decision enabled Asia-Pacific development and economic globalization to embark on a fast track of growth, turning the region into a powerhouse for world economic growth, an anchor of stability for global development, and a pacesetter for international cooperation. There is so much we can draw from this remarkable journey of Asia-Pacific cooperation.
Openness and inclusiveness are the defining feature of Asia-Pacific cooperation. Development in our region has been achieved not through provoking antagonism and confrontation, pursuing a beggar-thy-neighbor policy, or erecting high fences around a small yard, but by staying open and inclusive and drawing on each other's strengths. We have stayed committed to open regionalism, jointly formulated the Bogor Goals and the Putrajaya Vision, promoted trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and bolstered economic integration of the region. Over the past three decades, the Asia-Pacific has cut its average tariff rate from 17 percent to 5 percent, and contributed 70 percent of global economic growth.
Development for all is the overarching goal of Asia-Pacific cooperation. Development is an eternal pursuit in our region. We have stayed focused on development and continually deepened economic and technical cooperation, thus strengthening the ability of developing members to achieve self-development. We jointly developed "the APEC Approach" based on the principles of voluntarism, consensus-building and incremental progress, and we respect the right to development of all members. Over the past three decades, per capita income in the Asia-Pacific has more than quadrupled, and one billion people have been lifted out of poverty. This is an important contribution to human progress and global sustainable development.
Seeking common ground while shelving differences is the best practice of Asia-Pacific cooperation. Economies in the region have different histories and cultures and are in different stages of development.
Forcing uniformity will not advance cooperation in the region; seeking common ground while shelving differences is the right way forward. Over the past three decades, we have properly tackled major challenges such as the Asian and international financial crises, and have sustained the momentum of economic development in the Asia-Pacific. Our success was possible because we have followed the underlying trend, kept the larger picture in mind, and capitalized on the spirit of partnership featuring harmony without uniformity, and solidarity and mutual assistance. This has enabled us to turn diversity in membership into momentum for cooperation and make collective progress through tapping into complementarity.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The world has entered a new period of turbulence and change. The momentum of world economic growth is sluggish. Destabilizing, uncertain and unpredictable factors are increasing. Where will Asia-Pacific cooperation be headed in the next 30 years? This is a new question of the times facing us. As an ancient Chinese scholar observed, "plants with strong roots grow well, and efforts with the right focus ensure success." We should stay committed to APEC's founding mission, never forget our mission bestowed by history, and move to relaunch Asia-Pacific cooperation.
San Francisco, where the United Nations Charter was signed, embodies the noble aspiration of all peoples for peace across the world. Peace does not come by easily, and development is a long and arduous task. We should jointly uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and follow the right norms for state-to-state relations to maintain Asia-Pacific prosperity and stability through dialogue and partnership rather than confrontation and alliance. The region cannot and should not be an arena for geopolitical rivalry, still less should it be plunged into a new cold war or camp-based confrontation.
The story of Asia-Pacific prosperity and development shows that development is only possible with cooperation, absence of cooperation is the biggest risk, and that decoupling and supply-chain disruption are not in anyone's interests. We should remain committed to open regionalism, and steadfastly advance the building of a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific. We should respect laws governing economic development, bring out the best in each and every one of us, make our economies more interconnected, strengthen synergy between relevant regional trade agreements and development strategies, and build an open Asia-Pacific economy featuring win-win cooperation.
Facing a new wave of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, we should look beyond the horizon, seize the opportunities, and move along with the trend to promote transition to digital, smart and green development. We should jointly boost innovation and market application of scientific and technological advances, and push forward full integration of digital and physical economies. We should jointly improve global governance of science and technology, bolster support for green and digital transition and sustainable development through innovation, and build an open, fair, just and non-discriminatory environment for the development of science and technology.
Ten years ago, I called for building a community with a shared future for mankind. The APEC Putrajaya Vision explicitly lays out its vision for an Asia-Pacific community by 2040, charting the course for further cooperation in our region. In recent years, in response to the pressing needs around the world, I have proposed the Global Development Initiative (GDI), the Global Security Initiative (GSI) and the Global Civilization Initiative (GCI). They are intended to galvanize all stakeholders to address global challenges, promote common development, and improve the well-being of humanity. China will work with all in the Asia-Pacific to advance and implement these initiatives, and build an open, inclusive, clean and beautiful world of lasting peace, universal security and shared prosperity.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
This year, China's economy has been steadily recovering and turning for the better. Its growth rate is among the highest among major economies of the world. And solid gains have been made in our pursuit of high-quality development. China remains the most powerful engine of global growth, and will generate one-third of global growth this year. Just as some leaders of the business community have said, China has become a synonym of the best investment destination, and that the "next China" is still China. We invite friends from business communities across the world to invest and deepen your footprint in China.
China enjoys distinct strengths such as a socialist market economy in systemic terms, a supersize market in terms of demand, a full-fledged industrial system in terms of supply, and abundant, high-caliber labor forces and entrepreneurs in terms of human resources. China's economic development is self-generative, resilient and has many potentials. In the past, China surmounted numerous difficulties and obstacles by defusing risks and meeting challenges, and made historic achievements. Today, the overall Chinese economy, blessed by its strong resilience, enormous potential and ample room for maneuver, remains promising, and it will remain so in the long run. We have the confidence in, and even more capability of achieving long-term and stable growth, and through our development we will continue to provide the world with new growth momentum and opportunities.
China is committed to applying the new development philosophy with a focus on achieving innovative, coordinated, green and open development for all, and it is pursuing high-quality development and high value-added and green economic growth. Recent years have seen rapid growth in China's export of "the new three," namely, new energy vehicles, lithium-ion batteries and photovoltaic products. A national voluntary greenhouse gas emissions reduction trading market will soon be launched, which will create huge green market opportunities. China will expedite its efforts to modernize the industrial system, provide better institutional safeguards to enable business entities of all types to share in the gains of development, and foster new drivers of growth and create more room for development.
We remain committed to pursuing development with our doors open. We will unswervingly advance high-standard opening up and further expand market access. China has announced the removal of all restrictive measures on foreign investment in manufacturing. The sixth China International Import Expo was held recently, and the second Global Digital Trade Expo will be held later this month. All these steps will expand China's opening up and create more development opportunities and benefits for other countries. China is applying high standards to its implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. It is working to align itself with the high-standard economic and trade rules of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement to advance the process of acceding to these two agreements, and expand a globally-oriented network of high-standard free trade areas. This year marks the 10th anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative that I proposed. Last month, China hosted the third Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation with 458 deliverables. Chinese financial institutions established a financing window of RMB 780 billion for Belt and Road projects, and Chinese and foreign companies reached business deals worth USD 97.2 billion. All this will contribute to high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, and provide strong momentum for connectivity, development and prosperity around the world.
No matter how the international situation evolves, China's resolve to foster a market-oriented, law-based and world-class business environment will not change. And our policy of providing equal and quality services to foreign investors will not change. We will continue to improve the mechanisms for protecting the rights and interests of foreign investors, further shorten the negative list on foreign investment, fully ensure national treatment for foreign investors, and continue to strengthen IPR protection. We will strive to tear down the barriers to the flow of innovation factors, deepen reform of the digital economy, and promote free and orderly flow of data in compliance with the law. We will also take more "heart-warming" measures, such as improving the policies on entry and stay of foreign nationals in China and removing for them choke points in financial, medical, e-payment and other services. All this is designed to make it easier for foreign companies to invest and operate in China.
I wish to stress that Chinese modernization naturally calls for high-quality development by overcoming economic challenges and making steady progress. Its immutable goal is to deliver a better life to the whole of more than 1.4 billion Chinese people. For the world, this means a broader market and unprecedented cooperation opportunities. It will also instill strong impetus in the global modernization endeavor.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The Asia-Pacific business community has always been courageous pioneers in Asia-Pacific cooperation and global development. I hope that you will make full use of your entrepreneurship, and contribute even more to building an open Asia-Pacific economy and boosting global economic development. I also hope to see an active part of the global business community in the Chinese modernization drive to benefit from the huge opportunities brought by China's high-quality development!
Taking the high road and staking out fundamental principles, Xi writes:
No matter how the international situation evolves, China's resolve to foster a market-oriented, law-based and world-class business environment will not change.
That’s very strong stuff given how the West has destroyed contract law which forms the fundamental basis for trade and relations of any sort. Again, Points to Xi. And last, Xi's speech at the 30th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting, “Staying True to APEC Founding Mission And Enhancing Unity and Cooperation
To Jointly Promote High-Quality Growth in the Asia-Pacific”:
The Honorable President Joe Biden,
It is my great pleasure to meet you all in beautiful San Francisco. This APEC economic leaders' meeting, the 30th of its kind, holds special significance. I wish to thank President Biden and the U.S. government for the thoughtful arrangements for this meeting.
Since the establishment of the economic leaders' regular meeting mechanism, APEC has always stood at the global forefront of openness and development. It has played a robust role in promoting Asia-Pacific trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, economic growth and technological progress, and the flow of goods and people. It has helped create the "Asia-Pacific miracle" that has staggered the world.
In the world today, changes on a scale unseen in a century are unfolding at an accelerating pace. The world economy faces multiple risks and challenges. The Asia-Pacific region, which is an engine of global growth, thus has greater responsibility in these times. We, the leaders of Asia-Pacific economies, must think very hard as to what kind of Asia-Pacific region we should have by the middle of this century, what we should do to usher in another "golden 30 years" for the region, and how we can bring out the best of APEC in this process.
An ancient Chinese sage said, "For a righteous cause, I shall press forward, undaunted by thousands standing in my way." In the same spirit, we must remain steadfast in our commitment to APEC's founding mission. We must respond to the calls of our times responsibly and meet global challenges together. We must fully deliver on the Putrajaya Vision of building an open, dynamic, resilient and peaceful Asia-Pacific community for the prosperity of all our people and future generations. To this end, I wish to propose the following.
First, staying committed to innovation-driven development. Innovation is a strong driver of development. We should follow the trends of scientific and technological advancement, more proactively promote exchanges and cooperation in science and technology, and work together for an open, fair, equitable and non-discriminatory environment for scientific and technological progress. We should accelerate digital transformation, narrow the digital divide, redouble our efforts to implement the APEC Internet and Digital Economy Roadmap, support the application of big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, quantum computing and other new technologies, and create new momentum and new drivers of growth in the Asia-Pacific region.
China remains committed to its strategy for driving growth and development through innovation. China is advancing both its digital industry and the digital transformation of traditional industries. China has put forward a number of initiatives for promoting growth and development in the region through digital empowerment, such as digital technology-driven rural development, corporate digital identity, and transition to a green and low-carbon economy through the application of digital technologies.
Second, staying committed to openness in development. As manifested by the Asia-Pacific experience, an economy thrives in openness and withers in seclusion. We must promote free and open trade and investment, support and strengthen the WTO-centered multilateral trading regime, and keep global industrial and supply chains open and stable. We must say no to any attempt to politicize, weaponize, or impose security implications on economic and trade issues. We must remain unwavering to promote regional economic integration, accelerate the building of a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific, fully implement the APEC Connectivity Blueprint, and share in the opportunities of open regional development.
The recent third Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation that China hosted was a success, injecting fresh impetus into global connectivity and the building of an open world economy. China applies the highest standards in implementing the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, and has taken proactive steps to align its economic and trade rules with the high standards of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the Digital Economic Partnership Agreement (DEPA), to accelerate the process of its accession to the CPTPP and DEPA. China will work with all relevant parties to write a new chapter in open development.
Third, staying committed to green development. Given the increasingly grave challenges such as climate change and natural disasters, we must continue to promote harmony between man and nature, accelerate the transition to green and low-carbon development, and see to it that reducing carbon emissions and mitigating pollution operate in parallel with expanding green transition and promoting economic growth. We must deliver on the Bangkok Goals on Bio-Circular-Green (BCG) Economy, making "green" a defining feature of Asia-Pacific growth.
China remains as determined as ever to pursue green development that prioritizes eco-environmental conservation and protection. China is making active yet prudent moves toward its goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, and is accelerating its transition to green development. China has put forward initiatives for cooperation between APEC member economies in green agriculture, sustainable city development, green and low-carbon energy transition, and marine pollution control and prevention. All such initiatives aim to build a clean and beautiful Asia-Pacific region.
Fourth, staying committed to inclusive development that delivers benefits to all. Global development now faces severe challenges and the development divide is getting wider. I have said on many occasions that true development is development for all. We must fully implement the U.N. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and put development back on the international agenda as a central priority. We need to develop greater synergy in our development strategies and work together to resolve the global development deficit. China welcomes participation by all parties in the Global Development Initiative (GDI) to deepen cooperation in poverty reduction, food security, industrialization and development financing and build a global community of development so that the fruits of modernization are shared by people across the world. China will continue to support APEC in its economic and technical cooperation and work together with other member economies to make the "cake" of Asia-Pacific development bigger.
China is advancing the noble cause of building a great country and national rejuvenation on all fronts through a Chinese path to modernization. China will remain committed to the path of peaceful development. The ultimate goal of China's development is to better our people's lives, not to unseat anyone. As we celebrate 45 years of our reform and opening up this year, we will continue to pursue high-quality development and high-standard opening up. Chinese modernization will bring the world more and greater opportunities for the modernization of all countries. I am ready to work with you for new success in Asia-Pacific cooperation and for another "golden 30 years" of the region.
In typical Xi fashion, he lays out his program/vision that’s 100% inclusive that negates any opportunity to cast his words wrongly, although many try. By reading the 2023 APEC Leaders’ Golden Gate Declaration: “Creating a Resilient and Sustainable Future for All,” you’ll see how much impact Xi likeminded others had:
We, the Economic Leaders of APEC, met in San Francisco, California, on November 16-17, 2023. Three decades after the United States hosted the first APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting on Blake Island near Seattle in 1993, it is clear our steady commitment to APEC’s mission has helped our region become a vanguard of global growth. Here in San Francisco, we emphasized that effective policies require, above all, responsiveness to all our people and economies. This commitment has grounded our vision and practical work in San Francisco and throughout the U.S. host year meetings in Honolulu, Palm Springs, Detroit, and Seattle.
Today we face a different and dynamic set of economic challenges. We must harness technological and economic progress to continue to unleash the enormous potential and tremendous dynamism across our region, spur economic growth, as well as to address all environmental challenges, including climate change. The commitments found within this Golden Gate Declaration build upon the work of previous APEC hosts and move our region towards new ways of bringing resiliency, sustainability, interconnection, innovation and inclusion directly into our priorities and working together to respond to our most pressing economic challenges. Our APEC mission and our practical work remain guided by our commitment, as laid out in the Putrajaya Vision 2040 and the Aotearoa Plan of Action, to an open, dynamic, resilient, and peaceful Asia-Pacific community by 2040, for the prosperity of all our people and future generations. In focusing that vision and work this year on the U.S. theme of “Creating a Resilient and Sustainable Future for All,” we have acknowledged both new challenges that confront us and innovative ways to respond to those challenges.
The U.S. host year builds on APEC’s Bangkok Goals on the Bio-Circular-Green Economy, which established the goal of progressing sustainable and inclusive economic policies while ensuring they also address environmental challenges. We welcome the San Francisco Principles on Integrating Inclusivity and Sustainability into Trade and Investment Policy (Annex) as well as the ministerial-level deliberations of the 2023 sectoral ministerial meetings for Transportation, Trade, Disaster Management, Food Security, Health and the Economy, Energy, Women and the Economy, Small and Medium Enterprises, and Finance, including the Non-Binding Just Energy Transition Principles for APEC Cooperation; Principles for Achieving Food Security Through Sustainable Agri-Food Systems in the APEC Region. We also welcome the updated Disaster Risk Reduction Framework and Action Plan.
We reaffirm our determination to deliver a free, open, fair, non-discriminatory, transparent, inclusive, and predictable trade and investment environment. We also reaffirm the importance of the rules-based multilateral trading system, with the World Trade Organization (WTO) at its core, which continues to catalyze our region’s extraordinary growth. We are committed to necessary reform of the WTO to improve all of its functions, including conducting discussions with a view to having a fully and well-functioning dispute settlement system accessible to all members by 2024. We call upon APEC economies to work towards the timely and effective implementation of WTO agreements and reaffirm our commitment to engage constructively to ensure MC13 is a success and delivers positive outcomes
We underscore our commitment to advance economic integration in the region in a manner that is market-driven, including through the work on the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific agenda. To this end, we will enhance our capacity building and technical cooperation efforts in support of economies’ readiness to participate in high quality and comprehensive regional undertakings. We will further strengthen our engagement with stakeholders, including the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) and increase public-private sector dialogues.
We will continue to work to ensure a level playing field to foster a favorable trade and investment environment. We reiterate our commitment to accelerate work in response to the APEC Services Competitiveness Roadmap (ASCR) Mid-Term Review, with the aim to fully implement the ASCR by 2025. We also reaffirm our commitment to keep markets open and address supply chain disruptions, including by working to support our businesses in building secure, effective, resilient, sustainable, and open supply chains that create a predictable, competitive, and digitally interconnected Asia-Pacific region. By recognizing the unique needs and interests of all stakeholders, we can work towards more inclusive and sustainable policies that ensure our trade and investment equitably benefits all our people and economies. We remain committed to implementing the APEC Connectivity Blueprint (2015-2025) by strengthening physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity. We will intensify efforts to promote regional, sub-regional and remote area connectivity. In this regard, we reaffirm the importance of quality infrastructure development and investment.
The world continues to confront profound challenges posed by the impacts of climate change. We recognize that more intensive efforts are needed for economies to accelerate their clean, sustainable, just, affordable, and inclusive energy transitions through various pathways, consistent with global net-zero greenhouse gas emissions / carbon neutrality by or around mid-century, while taking into account the latest scientific developments and different domestic circumstances. In doing so, we endeavor to unleash a new era of decent jobs, investment, economic growth, and ensure energy, security, resilience, and access in the region. We recall our commitment to rationalize and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption, while recognizing the importance of providing those in need with essential energy services. To reach this goal, we will continue our efforts in an accelerated manner.
We will pursue and encourage efforts to triple renewable energy capacity globally through existing targets and policies as well as demonstrate similar ambition with respect to other zero and low emissions technologies including abatement and removal technologies in line with domestic circumstances by 2030. To spur the transition to and investment in low and zero emissions transportation in the region through various pathways, we will pursue efforts to accelerate the transition towards low and zero emissions vehicles; sustainable aviation fuels; and low and zero emission maritime shipping and port decarbonization.
We commit to fully implement the Food Security Roadmap Towards 2030 as a pathway to make our agri-food systems more resilient, productive, innovative, and sustainable, while recognizing there is “no-one-size-fits-all” approach to agricultural sustainability. We also reaffirm our commitment to work towards the sustainable resource management of agriculture, forestry and marine resources and fisheries, including combatting illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, and emphasize the relationship between open, undistorted agri-food systems, climate change, and food security and nutrition. We reaffirm the importance of agricultural productivity, international trade, and prevention and reduction of food loss and waste, in achieving food security, and will increase our efforts to ensuring food security and nutrition.
We remain committed to improving the quality of life for all our people, and to creating a resilient and sustainable future for all. To do so we will continue to advance and support gender equality as well as the economic inclusion and empowerment of MSMEs, the workforce, women, youth, and other groups with untapped economic potential, such as Indigenous Peoples as appropriate, persons with disabilities, and those from remote and rural communities.
We emphasize the importance of creating pathways for MSMEs and start-ups to grow, including through opportunities to become more competitive, specialized, and innovative. We will support MSMEs to expand into regional and global markets, including by integrating into global value chains, through collaboration with large enterprises, and through the use of digital tools and technologies. We encourage the development of easy-to-use and cost-effective products and solutions that help MSMEs accelerate their digital transformation. We recognize the importance of access to finance to facilitate growth. We reaffirm the importance of building an enabling environment for MSMEs, as well as supporting the transition of economic actors from the informal to the formal economy.
Here in San Francisco, where APEC first launched the Women and the Economy Forum in 2011, we reaffirmed our commitment to promote economic growth including by fostering the full and equal participation and leadership of women in the economy, including by improving women’s access to capital and assets, markets, skills and capacity building, voices and agency, and innovation and technology. We welcome continued efforts to accelerate full implementation of the La Serena Roadmap for Women and Inclusive Growth to drive inclusive economic development. We commit to care policies and investments in care infrastructure that address the unequal distribution in paid and unpaid care and domestic work, and furthering gender equality in global value chains. We will support women’s meaningful economic participation, particularly in the sustainable economy, as well as women’s and girls’ education, including in STEM fields. We reiterate our commitment to actively encourage initiatives and strategies to prevent and respond to gender-based violence and discrimination against women and girls of diverse backgrounds.
We reaffirm our commitment to create an enabling, inclusive, open, fair and non-discriminatory digital ecosystem for business and consumers. We welcome U.S. efforts to implement the APEC Internet and Digital Economy Roadmap (AIDER), which will foster an inclusive digital economy for all. We encourage all economies to accelerate efforts to implement AIDER, including in the areas of data privacy, cloud computing, telecommunications networks, promoting interoperability, ICT security, and digital trade and e-commerce, emerging technologies, and promoting innovation and adoption of enabling technologies and services. To unlock the full potential of digital technology, equitably share its benefits, and mitigate risks, we will explore a concerted and collaborative policy response, promote international cooperation on digital technology, and welcome a continued international discussion on governance for digital technology. We also commit to bridging the digital divide, including halving the gender digital divide by 2030, taking into account different domestic circumstances. We will strengthen digital infrastructure, facilitate access to information and communication technology goods and services, and ensure that no one is left behind by equipping all people with the necessary skills needed to thrive in the digital economy. We will accelerate digital transformation and cooperate on facilitating the flow of data and strengthening business and consumer trust in digital transactions, including through cooperation on regulatory approaches regarding the internet and digital economy, as well as consumer protection and data privacy in the digital environment. Furthermore, we recognize APEC’s efforts towards a more inclusive APEC Business Travel Card as an enabling technology that support efficient and seamless business travel in the region, and APEC’s efforts to facilitate the recovery of travel and tourism following the pandemic.
Recognizing the detrimental impact of corruption on economic growth and development, we are committed to taking practical actions and a united approach, to jointly fight cross-border corruption and deny safe haven to corruption offenders and their illicit assets. We welcome the work this year in this regard.
Our stakeholders and business communities bring creativity, dynamism, and energy and remain vital partners in our work. We look forward to further strengthening multi-stakeholder engagement, including with ABAC and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, as well as through events such as the APEC CEO Summit, and Sustainable Future Forum.
This Golden Gate Declaration and our cooperation throughout the U.S. host year exemplify our shared commitment to strengthening APEC’s leadership and standing as the premiere forum for economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. We look forward to the upcoming APEC host years of Peru (2024), the Republic of Korea (2025), and Viet Nam (2027), and we pledge our support to those economies as they advance APEC’s vital work. We extend our thanks to the people and City of San Francisco and State of California for the warm welcome extended to us.
What was Joe Biden or any other Western official to say given the Forum’s theme and Xi Jinping’s powerful vision and rhetoric combined with the current state of the world? Biden mostly behaved but couldn’t remain disciplined and gaffed again.
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